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4 Health Problems Linked to Depression

How Depression Can Hurt Your Physical Health
  -- By Robin Donovan, Health Writer
As if chronic depression isn't difficult enough, research shows that people with long-term or untreated depression are more likely to experience additional health concerns than the general public. The reasons for this are easy to imagine:

Depression can cause isolation and sluggishness, making you less likely to exercise; it can decrease one's appetite, making you less likely to eat healthfully; and it can interfere with normal sleep patterns, which can cause a range of health issues in and of itself.

Newer evidence reveals that depression impacts the body, too. Physical effects of depression range from increased discomfort from chronic pain to a higher risk of dying from a heart attack. Being depressed can even make the discomfort of chronic pain or illness more difficult to deal with.

That’s why it’s so important to seek help if you’re experiencing symptoms of depression. Often, relief from depression will boost your physical well-being, too.
Even if you’re already dealing with depression, keep an eye on these related health issues that are linked to the condition. Some are exacerbated by depression. Others are the result of long-term depression. In some cases, it’s not clear whether depression causes the health concern or vice versa, but being aware of these associations can help you escape their effects.

4 Health Problems Linked to Depression

Chronic Pain
The link between chronic pain and depression is unclear, and there is some controversy about which comes first. What has been proven is that chronic pain can exacerbate depression and severe depression can make you more susceptible to pain.

Researchers have found a link between higher levels of cytokines, molecules that facilitate intercellular communication, and depression. Cytokines can trigger an inflammatory response and, therefore, pain. While additional research is needed to clarify the relationship between pain, inflammation and depression, exercise, talk therapy and medication can help.

Heart Disease
Depression is considered a risk factor for heart disease, an increased risk of having a heart attack, and higher chances of death after a serious cardiac event. Unfortunately, even milder forms of depression have been associated with ischemic heart disease, which is caused by diminished blood supply to the heart muscle.

Scientists aren’t sure exactly how this occurs, but one clue may be found in the inflammation caused by depression, which can lead to thickening and stiffening of arterial walls—a precursor to heart disease. The good news is that early diagnosis and treatment of depression, particularly in women, can prevent these negative effects.

Dementia
In older people, the link between depression and dementia is significant. A meta-analysis of this correlation, published in 2013 in the British Journal of Psychology, supports this link, with researchers noting that depressed people over age 50 are more likely to develop dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.

How does this happen? The exact mechanism hasn’t been defined yet, but one hypothesis is that changes in blood vessels that impact brain matter cause and further both depression and dementia.

Depression is not a part of normal aging, and you can help older friends and family members by keeping a watchful eye for symptoms and asking medical caretakers to take these signals seriously. It’s never too late to seek help.

Sleeping Problems
Insomnia, like other chronic health problems, can increase one's risk of depression because it affects your day-to-day life, energy levels, and ability to focus or enjoy things. Depression can also cause sleeping patterns to change, causing you to sleep excessively or not very much at all—both of which are actually bad for your health. These sleep disruptions may be due to chemical changes in the brain that come along with depression. In addition, the same stress and anxiety that can heighten or even trigger depression can make it difficult to drift off to sleep each night.

Depending on whether you're sleeping too much—or not enough—the solutions for getting more restful sleep will vary. There are a variety of drug-free techniques that can help you improve your sleep, as well as medical interventions that can help.
 
Depression is devious; it can make nearly any health problem worse because it often saps your energy and motivation to care for yourself. And many chronic illnesses are accompanied by an increased risk of depression as patients adapt to the potential limitations and lifestyle changes a new diagnosis requires.

The faster you can get treatment for depression, the better. Too many people suffer needlessly without ever getting proper diagnosis or treatment. If you’re listless, having trouble sleeping, feeling helpless or hopeless, or simply not up to pursuing your usual interests, ask a physician for help.

Sources
American Heart Association, "Anxiety, Depression Identify Heart Disease Patients at Increased Risk of Dying," newsroom.heart.org, accessed on June 27, 2013.

Amos D. Korczyn, Ilan Halperin. "Depression and Dementia," Journal of the Neurological Sciences, Volume 283, Issue 1, Pages 129-142, 15 August 2009.
 
Alzheimer's Society, "Depression and Anxiety," www.alzheimers.org.uk, accessed on June 27, 2013.
 
Chapman DP, Perry GS, Strine TW. "The vital link between chronic disease and depressive disorders," Preventing Chronic Disease, 2005 Jan.
 
Harvard Medical School, "Too early to get up, too late to get back to sleep," www.health.harvard.edu, accessed June 27, 2013.
 
Mayo Clinic, "Insomnia," www.mayoclinic.com, accessed on June 27, 2013.
 
National Institute of Mental Health, "Depression and Chronic Pain," ipsi.uprrp.edu, accessed on June 27, 2013. 
 
Yelizaveta Sher, Sermsak Lolak, José R. Maldonado. "The Impact of Depression in Heart Disease," Current Psychiatry Reports, (2010) 12:255–264.