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Read This Before Starting a Low-Carb Diet

  -- By Becky Hand, Licensed & Registered Dietitian
Danger, danger! Do alarm bells sound in your head at the sight of a carbohydrate-rich food? If eaten, do feelings of guilt and remorse swell up inside? Low-carb, slow-carb, no-carb…with the plethora of diets touting the evils of carbohydrates, it's no wonder that folks are petrified of potatoes and leery of anything that contains wheat. It's true that foods that contain carbohydrates are abundant in our society and it is easy to overindulge.
 
But guess what? Carbs can be your friend. In fact, eliminating them could actually be harmful to your long-term health, and you may be missing out on some of their slimming effects. Here's the catch, though: You must know which ones to forgo and which to welcome back on your plate.
 
Before you decide to embrace the carb-free way to be, get the facts on how carbohydrates affect your life and goals.
 

How Carbohydrates Actually Work
 

Not only are carbohydrates found in many foods—fruits, vegetables, beans, dairy products, foods made from grain products, sugar, honey, molasses, corn syrup—but they're also the body's ideal fuel for most functions. They supply the body with the energy needed for the proper functioning of the muscles, brain and central nervous system. In fact, the preferred source of energy for the human brain comes from carbs.
 
To create energy, carbohydrates go through a transformative digestion process:
Chemically speaking, there are three types of carbohydrates:
  1. Simple Carbohydrates are composed of one or two sugar units and are found in both natural (strawberries) and refined (white table sugar) forms.
  2. Complex Carbohydrates (also referred to as starch) are made up of many sugar units and are found in both natural (brown rice) and refined (white bread) forms.
  3. Non-Digestible Carbohydrates (also called fiber). The body is unable to breakdown fiber for absorption. As such, it is not an energy source for the body but does promote health in many other ways.<pagebreak>

All Carbs Are Not Created Equal
 

Simple carbs, complex carbs and fiber are found in many foods. Some of these foods provide important nutrients that promote health; let's call these foods "smart carbs."  Others, "shoddy carbs," provide calories with little to no nutritional value.
 
Smart Carb Foods:
Shoddy Carb Foods: 

How the Body Responds to a Very Low-Carb Ketogenic Diet
 

When there is a severe deficit of carbohydrates, the body has several immediate reactions, one of which is that it starts using protein as a fuel source. Ketones, a by-product of incomplete fat breakdown, begin to accumulate in the blood. As a result, there is a loss of energy, as well as nausea, headaches, bad breath, dehydration and constipation. Long term usage can bring about nutrient deficiencies, malnutrition and increased risk for certain diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, cancers, diabetes, gout and kidney stones.
 
There are many "how's" that need to be explored before you decide if a low-carb diet is for you: How low will your carb intake be? For how low do you plan on sticking to the diet? How will it impact my other medical conditions? How happy will I be? SparkPeople's goal is to support members on their road to wellness. Our program sets the carbohydrate range to 45 to 65 percent of calories (50 percent for our diabetes program), numbers that are based on the Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes for carbohydrate. However, a member can change the carbohydrate range based on recommendations from one's health care providers, if needed.
 
The Million Dollar Question

How do you get the nutrient-boosting benefits from carbohydrates, while still losing weight? Use the three rules of the "KISS Me Plan": Keep It So Simple for Me for carbohydrate control.
 
Rule #1: Know which carbohydrate containing foods are "smart" and which are "shoddy."
Rule #2: For accuracy, weigh and measure all carbohydrate-containing foods using standard food portion sizes.
Rule #3: Include the correct number of carb-containing food servings in your eating plan.<pagebreak>
 
Listed below are the food groups which contain carbohydrates, along with the suggested number of servings based on a 1,200 to 1,600 calorie plan for weight loss. Adjustments should be made for higher calorie ranges.

Smart Carbs:

Whole Grains and Starchy Vegetables: 4 to 5 servings daily (approximately 15 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
 
Examples:                                             
Refined Grains: no more than 1 to 2 servings daily, preferably 0 servings (approximately 15 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
 
Keep in mind that this number counts toward the Whole Grains & Starchy Vegetables total for the day.
 
Examples:
Fruit: 2 to 3 servings daily (approximately 15 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
 
Examples:
Dairy: 1 to 2 servings daily (approximately 12 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
 
Examples:
Non-Starchy Vegetables: 3 to 7 servings daily (approximately 5 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
 
Examples:
Shoddy Carbs: No more than 1 to 2 servings weekly (approximately 15-20 grams of carbohydrate/serving)
 
Examples:
Food Portion Size Calories Carbohydrates (g)
Cookies, chocolate chip 2 medium 120 16
Chocolate candy kisses 6 133 17
Jelly beans 10   74 20
Fruit leather .75 ounce   75 17
Doughnut holes, glazed 3 165 19
Sugar-sweetened beverages, including soda,
fruit drinks, sweet tea, lemonade, sports drinks
6 ounces
(3/4 cup)
 
  76 19
Sugar
Honey
Corn syrup, pancake syrup, jelly, jam
           preserves, molasses
4 teaspoons
3 teaspoons
4 teaspoons
  64
  64
  75
17
17
20
French Fries 10 strips 166 20
Breaded mushrooms 3 ounces 190 19
Chips
Pretzels
Baked cheese crackers
1 ounce (16 chips)
1 ounce (4 twists)
1 ounce (25 crackers)
150
  86
150
15
18
19
Beer 12 ounce 153 13

The bottom line here is that you should be working to cut down on added sugar and refined grains, but should still consider all other carbs fair game. It's time to let those smart carbs back on your plate as you achieve and maintain a healthier weight.

This article was updated by Becky Hand, August 2017.