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Harvard Medical School
There is a small chance of having an allergic reaction to the x-ray dye used in the test. Some patients have some temporary irritation of their urethra after the tube has been in place, and this might result in some burning during urination for a few hours afterward. Let your doctor know if burning or pain with urinating lasts longer than a day; this could mean you have developed an infection.
As with all x-rays, there is exposure to a small amount of radiation. The amount of radiation from x-ray tests is very small. So, occasional exposures to x-ray tests are unlikely to be harmful to adults. However, repeated x-ray exposure may increase the risk of cancer later in life.
Pregnant women should avoid this test because the x-rays are directed at the pelvis.