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What Causes GERD?

Learn Which Risk Factors You Can Control

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, causes painful symptoms like heartburn and acid regurgitation. Although there are many theories on the causes of GERD, experts aren't sure exactly what causes it. There are two main categories of risks that can contribute to GERD—those that you can't change, and those that you can.

Uncontrollable Risk Factors
These variables are out of your control. Although you can't do anything to change them, it's important to know that these conditions can lead to GERD.
  • Hiatal hernia. A hiatal hernia describes a condition where the upper part of the stomach, which is usually separated from the esophagus by the diaphragm, is actually above the diaphragm. This allows acid to enter the esophagus easily. Although a person of any age could develop a hiatal hernia, it is more likely to occur in a person over the age of 50.
  • Pregnancy. The same hormones that allow a woman’s hips to widen during pregnancy in preparation for childbirth also lead to the relaxation of the esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach contents to enter back into the esophagus. Also, the increase in size of the uterus during pregnancy creates more pressure on the stomach and may force the stomach acid up into the esophagus.
  • Other medical conditions. Research has shown that a host of medical conditions can potentially lead to GERD, including: gastroparesis (a complication with many causes, including diabetes, in which your stomach takes too long to empty), asthma, scleroderma (a swelling of muscle tissues that prevents the digestive muscles from working properly), Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (a rare condition that results in very high amounts of stomach acid), peptic ulcer, cancer, scoliosis, cystic fibrosis, other gastrointestinal disorders, food allergies, chest trauma, and more.
Although these risk factors are outside of your control, there are many lifestyle habits that you CAN change to help prevent symptoms of GERD.
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About The Author

Liza Barnes Liza Barnes
Liza has two bachelor's degrees: one in health promotion and education and a second in nursing. A registered nurse and mother, regular exercise and cooking are top priorities for her. See all of Liza's articles.

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